托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析
欢迎来到蘑菇教育官网,更好的高申党聚集地!

TOEFL

24小时全国免费热线

400-004-6613

首页 / TOEFL / 干货分享 / 托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析
托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析

为了帮助大家高效备考托福,蘑菇教育小编为大家带来托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对大家备考有所帮助。

  为了帮助大家高效备考托福,蘑菇教育小编为大家带来托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对大家备考有所帮助。

  Direct Species Translocation

  It is becoming increasingly common for conservationists to move individual animals or entire species from one site to another.This may be either to establish a new population where a population of conspecifics(animals or plants belonging to the same species)has become extinct or to add individuals to an existing population.The former is termed reintroduction and the latter reinforcement.In both cases,wild individuals are captured in one location and translocated directly to another.

  Direct translocation has been used a wide range of plants and animals and was carried out to maintain populations as a source of food long before conservation was a familiar term.The number of translocations carried out under the banner of conservation has increased rapidly,and this has led to criticism of the technique because of the lack of evaluation of its efficacy and because of its potential disadvantages.The nature of translocation ranges from highly organized and researched national or international programs to ad hoc releases of rescued animals by well-intentioned animal lovers.In a fragmented landscape where many populations and habitats are isolated from others,translocations can play an effective role in conservation strategies;they can increase the number of existing populations or increase the size,genetic diversity,and demographic balance of a small population,consequently increasing its chances of survival.

  Translocation clearly has a role in the recovery of species that have substantially declined and is the most likely method by which many sedentary species can recover all or part of their former range.However,against this is the potential for reinforcement translocations to spread disease from one population to another or to introduce deleterious or maladaptive genes to a population.Additionally,translocation of predators or competitors may have negative impacts on other species,resulting in an overall loss of diversity.Last but not least of these considerations is the effort and resources required in this type of action,which need to be justified by evidence of the likely benefits.

  Despite the large number of tranlocations that have taken place,there is surprisingly little evidence of the efficacy of such actions.This is partly because many translocations have not been strictly for conservation;neither have they been official nor legal,let alone scientific in their approach.Successful translocations inevitably get recorded and gain attention,whereas failures may never be recorded at all.This makes appraisal of the method very difficult.One key problem is a definition of success.Is translocation successful if the individuals survive the first week or a year,or do they need to reproduce for one or several generations?Whatever the answer,it is clear that a general framework is required to ensure that any translocation is justified,has a realistic chance of success,and will be properly monitored and evaluated for the benefit of future efforts.

  An example of apparent translocation success involves the threatened Seychelles warbler.This species was once confined to Cousin Island,one of the Seychelles islands,and reduced to 26 individuals.Careful habitat management increased this number to over 300 birds,but the single population remained vulnerable to local catastrophic events.The decision was taken to translocate individuals to two nearby islands to reduce this risk.The translocations took place in 1988 and 1990,and both have resulted in healthy breeding populations.A successful translocation exercise also appears to have been achieved with red howler monkeys in French Guiana.A howler population was translocated from a site due to be flooded for hydroelectric power generation.The release site was an area where local hunting had reduced the density of the resident howler population.Released troops of monkeys were kept under visual observation and followed by radio tracking of 16 females.Although the troops appeared to undergo initial problems,causing them to split up,all the tracked females settled into normal behavioral patterns.

  Unfortunately,the success stories are at least matched by accounts of failure.Reviewing translocation of amphibians and reptiles,researchers C.Kenneth Dodd and Richard A.Siegel concluded that most projects have not demonstrated success as conservation techniques and should not be advocated as though they were acceptable management and mitigation practices.

  1.According to paragraph 1,what distinguishes reinforcement from reintroduction of animal species?

  A.Only reinforcement involves capturing wild individuals.

  B.Only reinforcement involves adding individuals to an existing population.

  C.Only reinforcement requires the use of conspecifics.

  D.Only reinforcement can help once a population is extinct.

  Paragraph 1 is marked with►

  答案:

  B选项正确

  解析:

  本题需要通读第一段。根据第一段第三句可以得知,第一句是reintroduction的定义,第二句是reinforcement的定义。reintroduce指的是把一个物种迁移到另一个地区,reinforcement指的是给一个原有物种已经灭绝或者还没灭绝的时候引入另一个物种群。对于选项A和C,文章第一段最后一句说明捕捉动物和conspecifics这个概念是两者都有的,选项D根据两者的定义,它们都可以帮助物种灭绝的地区。只有选项B说的reinforcement涉及到在原有物种的基础上引进新物种正确。选择B。

  2.The word"efficacy"in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A.effectiveness

  B.advantage

  C.motivation

  D.necessity

  Paragraph 2 is marked with►

  答案:

  A选项正确

  解析:

  本句根据所考察的单词定位到原文中这一句:The number of translocations carried out under the banner of conservation has increased rapidly,and this has led to criticism of the technique because of the lack of evaluation of its efficacy and because of its potential disadvantages.本句主干的意思是:以保护为名的物种迁移越来越多,这就导致人们批评迁移技术缺少效果的评估以及可能含有潜在危险。efficacy在这里的意思是效果。选项A的意思是效果,选项B的意思是好处,选项C的意思是动机,选项D的意思是必要性。选项A最贴合efficacy的意思。选择A。

  3.Paragraph 2 indicates all of the following about species translocation EXCEPT:

  A.It was used to secure food sources before it was used for conservation purposes.

  B.Its disadvantages have led to a decline in its use for conservation purposes.

  C.It has been used successfully on a wide range of plants and animals.

  D.The way in which it is carried out varies greatly.

  Paragraph 2 is marked with►

  答案:

  B选项正确

  解析:

  本题的出题点分布在第三段的前半部分。选项A的依据是and was carried out to maintain populations as a source of food long,正确;选项B的依据是The number of translocations carried out under the banner of conservation has increased rapidly,对于translocation的使用是增加了而不是减少了,选项B错误;选项C是根据Direct translocation has been used a wide range of plants and animals,这个技术的确被广泛运用了;选项D是根据The nature of translocation ranges from highly organized and researched national or international programs to as hoc releases of rescued animals by well-intentioned animal lovers,translocation的确有各种各样的形式方法,选项D正确。选择B。

  4.The word"substantially"in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A.temporarily

  B.considerably

  C.naturally

  D.suddenly

  Paragraph 2 is marked with►

  答案:

  B选项正确

  解析:

  本题根据所考察的词汇定位回原文中的这一句:Translocation clearly has a role in the recovery of species that have substantially declined and is the most likely method by which many sedentary species can recover all or part of their former range.本句大意是物种迁移可以帮助那些物种极大消亡的地区恢复,以及帮助某些不能移动的物种恢复原来的规模。这里substantially的意思是极大的。选项A的意思是暂时的,选项B是巨大的,选项C是自然低,选项D是突然的。选项B最符合substantially的意思,选择B。

  5.Paragraph 3 answers all of the following questions about species translocation EXCEPT:

  A.In what type of situation can species translocation be an effective strategy for

  species conservation?

  B.What are the potential advantages of species translocation as conservation strategy?

  C.What are the potential problems that species translocation can cause?

  D.How can the negative impact of the translocation of predators or competitors on other species be prevented?

  Paragraph 3 is marked with►

  答案:

  D选项正确

  解析:

  本题解题依据分布在第五段各处。选项A和选项B依据本段第一句话:Translocation clearly has a role in the recovery of species that have substantially declined and is the most likely method by which many sedentary species can recover all or part of their former range.这句话既说明了translocation在什么情况下使用,也说明了它能起到的作用。后文However后面则全是说的translocation的危害,选项C正确。然而选项D的怎么防止负面影响却整段都没有提到。选择D。

  6.The word"appraisal"in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A.acceptance

  B.improvement

  C.evaluation

  D.application

  Paragraph 4 is marked with►

  答案:

  C选项正确

  解析:

  本题根据所考察的词汇定位到原文中这一句:This makes appraisal of the method very difficult.这句话的大致意思是:这让对于方法的评估很困难。appraisal的意思是估价、评估。选项A的意思是接受,选项B的意思是进展,选项C的意思是评估,选项D的意思是应用。选项C最贴合appraisal的意思。选择C。

  7.The word"properly"in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A.appropriately

  B.externally

  C.frequently

  D easily

  Paragraph 4 is marked with►

  答案:

  A选项正确

  解析:

  本题根据所考察的词汇定位到原文中这一句:Whatever the answer,it is clear that a general framework is required to ensure that any translocation is justified,has a realistic chance of success,and will be properly monitored and evaluated for the benefit of future efforts.本句话的大意是:不论答案是什么,我们需要一个总体的框架来确保任何的物种迁移是合法的、是实际上很可能可以成功的、能够被合适地监控并评估其未来的好处的。properly在本句中的意思是适当的、恰当的、合适的。选项A是合适的,选项B是外部的,选项C是频繁的,选项D是简单的。选项A更贴合properly的意思,选择A。

  8.Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 4 about translocation efforts?

  A.Scientific approaches to translocation efforts have increased rapidly.

  B.The current records of success and failure of translocation efforts are not reliable.

  C.Illegal translocations have sometimes been more successful than the legal ones.

  D.The importance of translocation efforts is becoming increasingly apparent as more of these efforts are documented.

  Paragraph 4 is marked with►

  答案:

  B选项正确

  解析:

  本题涉及到原文第四段的前半部分。从Despite开始到never been recorded at all,这一段的大意是:尽管已经存在大量的物种迁移现象,但是并没有证据证明这些现象的效果。部分原因是很多物种迁移不是单纯为了保护自然的,也不是官方的合法的,所以在实施过程中也很少是科学的。成功的迁移肯定被关注到,记录下来,但是失败的可能根本不会被记录。根据这一部分所讲:选项A说科学的迁移方法越来越多,错误,科学的并不多;选项B说现存的记录是不可信的,正确;选项C说不合法的迁移比合法的迁移成功率高,这个原文里只说了不合法的多于合法的,没有说成功率的事;选项D说越来越多的迁移被记录下来,原文里说是失败的基本上没人记录,错误。选择B。

  9.According to paragraph 5,why did conservationists decide to translocate the Seychelles warbler from Cousin Island to two other islands?

  A.They were unsuccessful in increasing the population of warblers on Cousin Island.

  B.They warbles were originally native to all three islands.

  C.They wanted to ensure that the warbler species would survive a disaster on Cousin Island.

  D.They expected that human activity on Cousin Island would threaten the warblers.

  Paragraph 5 is marked with►

  答案:

  C选项正确

  解析:

  本题题干给的关键词是Seychelles warbler,Cousin Island和two other islands。根据这三个词定位到这一句:Careful habitat management increased this number to over 300 birds,but the single population remained vulnerable to local catastrophic events.The decision was taken to translocate individuals to two nearby islands to reduce this risk.这两句话的大致意思是:Seychelles warbler这个物种一开始濒危,经过人类的管理增加到了300多只,但是这个种群还是对于当地的灾难性事件没什么防御能力。所以人们决定把它们引入到另外两个相邻的岛屿上,以降低绝种的风险。选项A说人们没有成功地增加这种鸟的数量,错误,是成功增加了;选项B说这种鸟对于三个岛来说都是土生土长的,错误,后面那两个相邻的岛屿是后来才人为引入的鸟;选项C说他们想保证这种鸟可以活过Cousin Island上的灾害,对的;选项D说人类在Cousin Island上的行为会危害这种鸟,错误,是自然灾害会威胁它们的生存。选择C。

  10.According to paragraph 5,why were the howler monkeys in French Guiana translocated?

  A.Local hunting had dramatically reduced their population density.

  B.Predators had significantly reduced the number of individuals.

  C.The females of the species had lost their normal behavioral patterns.

  D.Their original site was going to be significantly modified.

  Paragraph 5 is marked with►

  答案:

  D选项正确

  解析:

  本题根据题干给出的关键词howler monkeys和French Guiana定位到原文中这两句:A successful translocation exercise also appears to have been achieved with red howler monkeys in French Guiana.A howler population was translocated from a site due to be flooded for hydroelectric power generation.第二句due to后面说明了原因:因为水力发电导致了洪水,淹了猴子的栖息地。选项A说原因是捕猎,不对;选项B说是因为捕食者大量捕食,不对;选项C是说雌性猴子行为失常了,不对;选项D符合,说猴子的栖息地被很大地改变了。选择D。

  11.In paragraph 6,the author mentions Dodd and Siegel's review of the translocation of amphibians and reptiles in order to

  A.help explain the strategies researches use to review translocation efforts.

  B.support the claim that the successes of translocation as a conservation technique have been matched by its failures.

  C.explain why the translocation of reptiles and amphibians is more difficult than that of other animals.

  D.emphasize that translocation techniques have been tried in a limited number of situations.

  Paragraph 6 is marked with►

  答案:

  B选项正确

  解析:

  本题根据题干关键词amphibians and reptiles定位到第六段,先看第六段结构:首句说Unfortunately,the success stories are at least matched by accounts of failure.然后后文就开始拿amphibians and reptiles做例子,以证明第一句的观点。选项B符合。选项A说解释策略,选项C说解释amphibians and reptiles为什么迁移起来更难,这个原文里也没有提;选项D说强调了迁移技术在某些情景中被应用,也没有提到。选择B。

  12.Look at the four squares[■]that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

  This is not the only example of a large-scale translocation that had positive results.

  Where would the sentence best fit?

  Click on a square[■]to insert the sentence in the passage.

  答案:

  C选项正确

  解析:

  本题先分析需要被插入的句子:This is not the only example of a large-scale translocation that had positive results.开头this表示前文肯定提到过相关的东西,only example和not说明前面一句提到的也是个例子。一一去试四个可以插入的位置,发现第三个位置比较符合。这个位置前面那一句写了一个成功的例子,后面一句是具体说明了需要插入句的第二个例子,两个句子里的positive和also也相互呼应。选择C。

  13.Directions:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.Some answer choices do not belong in summary because the express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.The Question is worth 2 points

  Translocation is used for the reintroduction or reinforcement of species.

  Answers Choices

  A.Translocation is used in species conservation,but it can also bring about the spread of disease,introduction of maladaptive genes,and reduction of species diversity.

  B.Until recently,most of the successful translocation efforts were carried out by well-intentioned animal lovers.

  C.Even though there are accounts of successful translocations there have been many that have failed.

  D.A fundamental problem in the evaluation of translocation is the lack of a framework that defines success and determines whether a translocation effort is justified.

  E.It is relatively easy to justify translocation efforts involving species that have been seriously affected by predators or strong competitors,but these efforts are the most difficult to monitor.

  F.Examples like the translocation of the Seychelles warbler and the red howler monkeys in French Guiana demonstrate that each species requires specific translocation approaches and techniques.

  Drag your answer choices to the space where they belong.To remove an answer choice,double click on it.

  答案:

  ACD选项正确

  解析:

  本题需要依次分析每一个选项。选项A说了物种迁移的好和不好,概括了第二段内容,可以;选项B提到很多成功的迁移是被好心的动物爱好者实施的,这个没有提到;选项C说即使确实成功的迁移很多,但是失败的也多,概括了第五段第六段的内容,正确;选项D说评价迁移遇上的基本问题是缺少一个决定是否成功的框架,概括了第四段的内容,可以选;选项E说迁移的效果很容易被证实,错误,第四段最后一句说明是很难被证实;选项F说每个物种都需要具体的迁移途径,这个原文中没有提到,不选。综合下来选择A,C,D。

  以上是蘑菇教育小编给大家整理的托福TPO37阅读Passage2原文文本+题目+答案解析,希望对你有所帮助!

托福高分榜
姓名
培训前
培训后
  • Tina
    93分
    110分
  • 简AJ
    66分
    105分
  • 金ZH
    62分
    102分
  • 曹JT
    96分
    110分
  • 鲁LY
    86分
    111分
  • 蔡DW
    89分
    110分
  • 洪YL
    78分
    112分
  • 冯HQ
    80分
    102分
  • 付DY
    90分
    113 分
  • 华SC
    59分
    112分
  • 张YH
    90分
    111分
  • 缘L
    86分
    110分
  • 小S
    94分
    110分
  • Rey
    84分
    110分
  • 商RY
    92分
    109分
  • Tina
    95分
    109分
  • Coco
    93分
    109分
  • 花XY
    68分
    108分
  • SG
    93分
    108分
  • M
    90分
    107分
  • 梁B
    80分
    105分
  • 刘MY
    82分
    105分
蘑菇校区
北京国贸校区

北京市朝阳区东三环建外SOHO东区A座1501室

400-004-6613
北京海淀校区

北京市海淀区新中关大厦B座(北翼)901、907室

400-004-6613
北京顺义校区

北京市顺义区安泰大街9号中粮祥云小镇北区8号楼906室

400-004-6613
上海浦东长柳路校区

上海市浦东新区长柳路58号证大立方505室

400-004-6613
上海徐家汇校区

上海市徐家汇区零陵路899弄飞洲国际大厦19楼G-F座

400-004-6613
深圳南山校区

深圳市南山区中山大学产学研大楼16层16A

400-004-6613